Tuesday, 15 May 2012

The Harvard Reference System and citing tweets

Earlier this year The Modern Language Association (MLA) decided to devise a standard format to assist students and researchers who liked to cite data found on Twitter. Given that Twitter is increasingly becoming a place in which news can break, frequently ahead of mainstream channels, then it makes perfect sense to attempt to accommodate this platform. The MLA system works well with how Twitter functions.

They advise researchers that citation should being the entry in the works cited list (aka the bibliography) with the author's real name followed by the Twitter user name in parentheses. When only the user name is known, default to that. What should follow this is the entire text from the tween in quotation marks. Spelling mistakes and capitalisation should remain exact (don't change anything!). Finally, the entry should include the date and time of the message and the medium of the publication (in this case, Tweet). Here's an example:
Jewitt, Rob (@rob_jewitt). "The problem with nerd politics gu.com/p/37hyb" 14 May 2012, 8:55pm. Tweet 
If citing the tweet in the body of a paper the MLA recommends it is cited in its entirety.

Now this might seem fairly straightforwards but I do find it curious that the MLA ignores the unique URL provided by a tweet. After all, every status posted has it's own page. The above example could easily be supplemented by the link: http://twitter.com/#!/rob_jewitt/status/202124949522104322. I'd have thought that this would have been essential given that the exact timings on Twitter are subject to the timezone of the reader rather than the poster, meaning errors can occur.

The Harvard Reference system and web sources

At the time of writing there is no formal guidance for how to cite a tweet within the structure of the Harvard Reference (HR) system , but it should be possible to work within the current guidance dealing with websites and adapt the MLA system to come up with a solution. There are even automated tools like the CiteThisForMe page that attempt to auto format sources but it struggles with Twitter.

Students at Sunderland are encouraged to use the HR system as outlined by the resources over on the University Library Services site (direct link to "Cite them right" guide).

The common approach to citing an electronic source, like a website is to include the following info in this order:

  • Author
  • Year that the site was published/last updated (in parentheses)
  • Title of Internet site (in italics)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)
There may be instances where the author is not known but the page includes a title, so that should be used instead. There may even be instances where neither of these can be identified, meaning that the only information that can be provided is the page URL. As you can see, this is less than ideal. Many sites and blogs are happy to identify an author or contributor, so where these are provided then they should be used accordingly. There are also extra fields (highlighted) to deal with:
  • Author of message
  • Year that the site was published/last updated (in parentheses)
  • Title of message (in quotation marks)
  • Title of Internet site (in italics)
  • Day / month of posted message
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)
So, following these rules,  this authored Lifehacker article should look something like this:
Thorin Klosowski (2012) 'Living in Public: What Happens When You Throw Privacy Out The Window', Lifehacker, 26 April. Available at http://lifehacker.com/5905347/living-in-public-what-happens-when-you-throw-privacy-out-the-window (Accessed: 15 May 2012)
Citing a tweet in the Harvard Reference system

By drawing on the guidance for citing blogs, then it's possible to come up with some easy to follow rules for citing Twitter. It is a micro-blogging service after all. The following example will use the tweet I employed in the MLA example above coupled with the HR advice for citing blogs. I propose the following method:
  • Author of message (Twitter user name in parentheses)
  • Year that the status was published (in parentheses)
  • Full message (in quotation marks)
  • Title of Internet site (in italics)
  • Day / month / time of posted message
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)
The aforementioned tweet should look something like this in the bibliography:
Rob Jewitt (@rob_jewitt) (2012), "The problem with nerd politics gu.com/p/37hyb", Twitter, 14 May 2012, 8:55pm. Available at http://twitter.com/#!/rob_jewitt/status/202124949522104322 (Accessed: 15 May 2012)
It might look a little cumbersome but it has the advantage over the MLA system in that it is more accurate and helpful for anyone else who might want to refer to the same message, or even check its veracity. This is by no means a definitive solution but it is an attempt to be consistent. Comments and feedback welcome


Xj Cheng said...

You ability able-bodied baddest one for the daytime and one for night.If you are in a absurd mood,you ability even go in for altered Tag Heuer replica watches for the altered canicule of the week.Tag Heuer replica watches are authoritative their attendance acquainted all over the apple and it is top time that you showed off you accurate colors by hublot replica cutting just hublot replica.Your co-workers will accord you that added bit of account and your accompany will beam at your wrist with awe.Afterwards all a Tag Heuer replica watches does accomplish its attendance acquainted behindhand of who wears it.These humans apperceive the amount of Tag Heuer watches and how wearers of replica wallets the aforementioned accomplish a appearance account wherever they go.Now that you accept a asperous abstraction of these cartier replica,is it not top time that you got some of them for yourself? With the prices of cartier replica these Tag Heuer replica watches getting so low,it makes faculty to go in for added than one.For example,the alpha stands for Ladies watches,the omega replica stands for omega replica,the SL for music watches and SU for aboveboard watches.The numerals are abiding in archival order.Women everywhere were omega replica accustomed about the damier canvas architecture and Louis Vuitton anon accomplished that he had a abundant hit with this new band of luggage.Right afterwards this,Louis Vuitton began creating louis vuitton replica added and added handbags for accustomed use.

wei coco said...

omega replica, grew up in the 1800's and was amidst by French ability which he acclimated to
his advantage to accomplish and architecture appearance accessories for the wealthy.The cast name and near accomplishment of his superior craftsmenship was accepted and accepted by his flush and affluent account of clientele.So, this hasn't changed, even down until today. The operation is getting run by Daniel Lalund, the admiral and CEO of
breitling replica North America division. Does Louis Vuitton replica handbags Go On Sale? This catechism would never be asked by the flush and affluent. As a amount of fact, if these luxury, louis vuitton replicaartist handbags were too bargain it would not address to them and they would abode a lower amount on these items.Wealthy humans for the a lot of allotment enjoy cogent others how abundant they've spent on affluence items because it makes them feel good,important and rich.Okay, I'll stop acrimonious on the flush or affluent. lol. Seriously, we accept been in a affectionate of recession for the accomplished brace of years and I can candidly say, I accept not noticed a drop in the amount of LV's accepted archive to date.According to Daniel Lalund, "replica shoes" With that said, it could be safe to accept the affluence banker will not accept any sales or bead in they're retail abundance prices or online catalog. So, if you absolutely will not
the best, I assumption you'll accept to pay for it.

Fa Li said...

It seems that Chopard usually learn how to meal our eye by incredibly stunning pieces cheap replica watches. Concurrently when Chopard Timeless Rushing wrist watches are catching male's eye balls, its Delighted Jewels and Imperiale products similar to constructed works of art make ladies outrageous. This look at and jewelry producer isn't only adept at making diamonds Cheap Replica Watches uk, but will also likely at coping with with colorings. The Chopard Imperiale Joaillerie Range check out just proves that Hublot Replica Watches. This can be a design and style that read jewelled natural beauty at its mightiest. And due to the ace quality and brilliant-cut precious gems and treasures, imitation Chopard Imperiale Joaillerie Assortment wristwatches completely project an aristocratic accent.

Anonymous said...

Completely different from people that love strong and hefty wristwatches with striking identity rolex replica watches, I am more neurotic with those narrow and simplified versions. Not surprisingly, the phrase “simplistic” signifies the compactness in style and design however, not the from a technical perspective ease. Extra-skinny wrist watches will probably be among the remarkable the watchmaking arena complications online traffic finer versions are not only found beguiling within the exterior design and style U-Boat Replica Watches, but particularly fantastic from the hardware inner surface. When you head for functionally tricky timepieces, it's possible you'll match a wide selection from different watchmakers. But if you just need skinny sections, you can only obtain many items from the number of look at manufacturers.

Fa Li said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Anonymous said...

I have forever not been 100 % enslaved by a designer watches for quite a prolonged before Panerai Radiomir 8 Days to weeks “Oro Rosso” Limited Edition watch was in contact

with me U-Boat Replica Watches. I've an incomprehensible passion for Panerai of course this Italian brand

name carries a relatively limited background weighed against other exclusive Physical exercise observe manufacturers. The dramatic style of Panerai is relayed through the not

utter timeless nor extremely striking design and style rolling around in its watches. Radiomir 8 Days “Oro Rosso” different watches definitely make Panerai a heralded name

once more in the arena of wristwatches rolex replica watches. Radiomir 8 Days to weeks “Oro Rosso”

timepieces flip them selves into highly chic sections using a spiffy combination of colors. Pursuing the first idea of these different watches, look-alike “Oro Rosso” designer

watches also provide a whole new impression.

Post a Comment